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EU Delegation Statement on International Human Rights Day 欧洲联盟驻华代表团关于国际人权日的声明

On 10 December 2018 the international community marks the 70th anniversary of the proclamation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations.

The Universal Declaration is as relevant today as it was on the day that it was proclaimed. It states 30 rights and freedoms that belong to human beings, including the right to freedom of thought, freedom of religion and belief, freedom of expression and freedom of peaceful assembly and association. It confirms the inalienability and universality of these rights: neither institution nor individual should act in any way to violate the rights enshrined in the Declaration. Since its adoption, the Declaration has been the basis for all international human rights law, including legally binding treaties, and for all progress made related to human rights worldwide.

This anniversary is an opportunity for all countries, groups and individuals to celebrate the Universal Declaration and to reaffirm the enduring human rights principles and standards it has helped to establish. On this day the European Union and its Member States reaffirm the shared commitment to maintain and to advance human rights.

Hundreds of millions of Chinese citizens have experienced first-hand improvements in their social and economic situation, including poverty alleviation, improved access to health and education, and reduced maternal and infant mortality. In the sphere of civil rights, we have witnessed a commitment by China to ensure legal representation for greater numbers of criminal defendants, as well as a continuing effort to combat and prevent domestic violence. China has reduced the number offences punishable by death in recent years and we expect it to continue these efforts.  At the same time, a significant number of people are still sentenced to death and executed each year by the Chinese authorities. It is important for China to be transparent concerning these numbers and to work towards a moratorium and ultimately the abolition of capital punishment.

Despite some progress, basic human rights are often denied to China's citizens, including rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration and also in the Constitution of China.

There has been a continuing deterioration of the situation with respect to freedom of religion or belief, particularly in Xinjiang and in Tibet, freedom of expression and association, as well as continuous large-scale extra-judicial detention. Credible reports, including those from the United Nations, point to a worsening of the human rights situation in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; mass detentions in political "re-education centres" affecting Uighurs and other minorities; intimidation of citizens by  mass surveillance; restrictions on travel; and of Uighurs abroad, including the EU, being harassed or returned to China involuntarily.

The arrest, detention and imprisonment of human rights defenders, lawyers and other citizens exercising fundamental human rights have continued. Human rights defenders and activists including Ilham Tohti, Tiyip Tashpolat, Wu Gan, Tashi Wangchuk, and Huang Qi, human rights lawyers Wang Quanzhang, Li Yuhan, Jiang Tianyong and Yu Wensheng have been convicted, detained, forcibly disappeared or sentenced to death. We expect China to end the detention and harassment of these and other Chinese citizens and human rights defenders and their family members. All criminal defendants should have access to lawyers of their own choosing and to their family members, and should not be subjected to forced and public confessions, torture or other mistreatment.

We also expect China to promote freedom of information and allow foreign and domestic NGOs to register and operate freely and effectively, to ensure full labour rights for all workers, and to promote freedom of association and information, including internet freedom. We highlight the importance of an enabling legal environment for press freedom and the role of an independent judiciary in ensuring legal guarantees for press freedom and the prosecution of crimes against journalists.

Having endorsed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Union and its Member States and China made a public commitment to the international community to uphold international human rights laws and to defend universal values. Protecting human rights is an essential foundation of stable, secure, prosperous and functioning societies. The European Union and its Member States stand ready to work closely with China, within the framework of the EU-China Human Rights Dialogue and other formats, to promote respect for the rule of law and human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration the world celebrates today, and view this as a core part of our engagement with the government of the People's Republic of China.

2018年12月10日国际社会纪念联合国通过《世界人权宣言》(《宣言》)70周年。

今天与通过《宣言》的那一天一样具有现实意义。它规定了属于人类的30项权利和自由,包括思想自由权、宗教和信仰自由权、言论自由权以及和平集会和结社自由权。它确认了这些权利的不可剥夺性和普遍性:任何机构和个人都不应以任何方式违反《宣言》所载的权利。 自通过以来,《宣言》一直是所有国际人权法的基础,包括具有法律约束力的条约,以及与全世界人权有关的所有进展。

这个70周年是所有国家、团体和个人庆祝《宣言》,并重申其帮助建立的持久人权原则和标准的机会。在这一天, 欧洲联盟及其成员国重申维护和促进人权的共同承诺。

数亿中国公民的社会和经济状况得到了第一手改善, 包括扶贫、改善获得医疗和教育的机会,以及降低孕产妇和婴儿死亡率。在公民权利领域,我们看到中国承诺确保为更多的刑事被告提供法律代理,,并继续努力打击和预防家庭暴力。近年来,中国减少了可判处死刑的犯罪数量,我们期待中国继续这些努力。同时,每年仍有相当多的人被中国政府判处死刑和处决。中国必须对这些数字保持透明,努力实现中止并最终废除死刑。

尽管取得了一些进展,但中国公民的基本人权往往被剥夺,包括《宣言》和《中华人民共和国宪法》所载的权利。

宗教及信仰自由方面的情况持续恶化,特别是在新疆和西藏地区,言论和结社自由以及持续的大规模法外拘留。包括来自联合国的可信报告表明新疆维吾尔自治区的人权状况正在恶化,进行大规模拘留并收纳维吾尔族和其他少数民族的政治再教育中心,通过大规模监视恐吓公民,对人员流动的限制,还有包括针对在欧盟境内的海外维吾尔族的骚扰或令其非自愿地返回中国。

对人权捍卫者、律师和其他行使基本人权的公民的逮捕、拘留和监禁仍在继续。人权捍卫者和活动人士,包括伊力哈木·土赫提、塔西甫拉提·特依拜、吴淦、扎西文色和黄琦,人权律师王全璋、李昱函、江天勇和余文生已被定罪、拘留、强迫失踪或判处死刑。我们期待中国停止对这些和其他中国公民、人权捍卫者及其家人的拘留和骚扰。所有刑事被告都应有机会接触自己选择的律师和家人,不应受到逼供和公开悔过、酷刑或其他形式的虐待。

我们还期待中国促进信息自由,并允许国内外非政府组织自由登记和有效地运作,确保所有工人享有充分的劳动权利,并促进结社和信息自由,包括互联网自由。我们强调为新闻自由创造有利的法律环境的重要性,以及独立司法机构在确保新闻自由的法律保障和起诉针对记者的罪行方面的作用。

欧洲联盟及其成员国和中国在通过《宣言》之后,公开向国际社会承诺维护国际人权法和捍卫普遍价值观。保护人权是稳定、安全、繁荣和运作良好的社会的重要基础。欧洲联盟及其成员国随时准备在中欧人权对话和其他形式的框架内与中国密切合作,促进全世界对今天庆祝的《宣言》内规定的针对法治和人权的尊重,并将此视为欧盟与中华人民共和国政府交流合作的核心部分之一。

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