- Normal precautions
- High degree of caution
- Avoid non-essential travel
- Do not travel
- Safety and Security
- Local Laws and Customs
- Additional information
- Embassy Contact
Do Not Travel
General Travel Advice
The Department of Foreign Affairs strongly advises against all travel to Belarus at this time due to the extent of Russian military operations in the country in connection with the widespread military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and the increasingly restricted options for Irish citizens in Belarus to depart the country.
Due to the aforementioned conflict in neighbouring Ukraine, flights to and from Minsk are now very limited. Irish citizens wishing to leave Belarus should do so immediately via the land borders with Poland, Latvia or Lithuania. Please note that a number of land border crossings between Belarus and EU Member States have been closed in recent times. The following border crossings for passenger vehicles remain in operation but may be subject to closure at short notice in the future:
Lithuania: Lavoriškės; Raigardas; Medininkai; Šalčininkai
Irish citizens require a visa to enter Belarus. However, a visa is not required for Irish citizens planning to enter and leave Belarus through Minsk airport who will be staying in Belarus for no more than thirty days.
Please note that any Irish citizen who entered Belarus via Minsk airport will need to go to a police station to request an exit visa if they wish to leave the country via a land border. This is because the standard visa issued to travellers upon arrival at Minsk airport only permits them to leave Belarus via the airport and not via land borders. Belarusian border guards will not let you leave the country unless you have the correct exit visa.
A valid passport is required for travel to Belarus. Irish passports should have a minimum validity of at least three months beyond scheduled departure date. Passport cards cannot be used.
For more information on visas and passports, please see the Additional Information tab.
Visitors to Belarus are advised to follow the guidance of national and local authorities and stay fully informed of what's going on by monitoring local news and social media.
The best help is often close at hand so if you have problems, try talking to your local contacts, tour operator representative or hotel management.
You can contact the emergency services in Belarus by dialling emergency numbers:
- Police: 102
- Rescue and Fire brigade: 101
- Ambulance: 103
Our tips for Safe Travels:
- Get comprehensive travel insurance that covers all your planned activities.
- Register your details with us so that we can contact you quickly if there’s an unforeseen crisis like a natural disaster or a family emergency.
- Follow us on twitter @dfatravelwise for the latest travel updates.
- Read our ‘Know Before You Go’ guide.
As there is no Irish Embassy in Belarus, we are limited in the help we can offer you in an emergency. However, if you need assistance, you can contact the Irish Embassy in Lithuania.
Safety and Security
Safety and Security
Safety and security
There has also been a rise in irregular migration from Belarus to its EU neighbours, which has caused significant tensions in the region. All travel to the border regions with Poland, Lithuania and Latvia should be avoided, unless entering or exiting the country via a border crossing.
There may be long queues at the border and customs and immigration can be lengthy and bureaucratic. Ignore ‘private facilitators’ who offer to help travellers pass through checkpoints and border crossings.
We strongly advise you to avoid political demonstrations, rallies, marches or public gatherings, which increasingly have the potential to turn unpredictable and volatile. Being around such demonstrations or rallies could be interpreted as actively participating in the event, and could result in detention by the authorities.
Always keep yourself informed of what’s going on around you by monitoring local media and staying in contact with your hotel or tour organiser.
Although the threat from terrorism in Belarus is low, there is still a global risk of indiscriminate terrorist attacks, which could be against civilian targets, including places frequented by tourists and expatriates. Be vigilant and follow the instructions and advice of local police at all times.
A bomb exploded at Oktyabryskaya metro station in central Minsk during the evening rush hour in 2011, killing 15 people and injuring over 200.
You should be alert at all times to the possibility of tourist crime, particularly muggings, pickpockets and theft from vehicles or hotel rooms. Always take sensible precautions:
- Don’t carry your credit card, travel tickets and money together - leave spare cash and valuables in a safe place.
- Don’t carry your passport unless absolutely necessary and leave a copy of your passport (and travel and insurance documents) with family or friends at home.
- Take extra care when travelling by train as theft can occur, especially on overnight sleeper trains to Warsaw and Moscow.
- When visiting night clubs, pay particular attention to your surroundings and drinks, as the drugging of drinks is not uncommon.
If you’re a victim of a crime while in Belarus, report it to the local police immediately. And you can contact us at the Irish Embassy in Vilnius if you need help.
If you’re planning to drive in Belarus, be extremely careful as driving standards are erratic and driving is on the right-hand side. Belarusian ‘A-class’ highways are in average to good condition, but the condition of ‘B-class’ roads varies considerably and some are impassable for periods in winter.
If you want to drive:
- Bring your full Irish driver’s licence and your international driving permit and make sure you have adequate and appropriate insurance.
- Note that road works and potholes are usually poorly marked.
- Pony and trap combinations are a specific hazard for drivers in rural and unlit areas.
- Be aware that you could be fined for jaywalking.
- Vehicles should have lights on at all times from 1 November to 31 March inclusive
- Most traffic signs are in Cyrillic script only (not Latin).
Be aware of Belarus’s traffic laws, such as speed limits. The speed limit in built-up areas is 60km/h, unless specified otherwise. Outside built-up areas, the limit is 90km/h, and on motorways the speed limit is 100km/h. If you’ve held a driver’s licence for less than two years, you must not exceed 70km/h.
When travelling by private vehicle, you must be able to produce ownership documents at customs offices at border crossings. If you’re not the owner of the car, you must produce a letter of ‘power of attorney’. Only originals of these documents are accepted.
If you’re driving into Belarus make sure that you don’t overstay the temporary import terms for your vehicles. If you violate the exit deadline, your vehicle could be confiscated at the Belarusian border or at an in-country police checkpoint.
Driving on the motorway
There’s a fee system in operation on Belarus' highways for drivers of foreign vehicles. Payments are collected at border checkpoints and will vary according to the length of your stay.
You must have third party car insurance or you may get an ‘on-the-spot’ fine. You can only buy this when entering Belarus. Ask at Belarusian Customs border offices for information.
There are police checkpoints on routes throughout the country. Always stop at these when instructed, and have your vehicle documentation to hand, otherwise you risk a fine and delay.
Hiring a vehicle
If you’re hiring a vehicle, we advise you not to hand over your passport as a form of security. If you’re allowing your passport to be photocopied, keep it in your sight at all times.
Check that you have adequate insurance and read the small print of the vehicle hire contract (particularly any waiver that will come into effect if the vehicle is damaged).
Many adventure sports operators are unregulated, and so take care when you’re choosing and always go with reputable tour operators.
Local Laws and Customs
Local Laws and Customs
Local laws and customs
Local laws and customs
Remember, the local laws apply to you as a visitor and it is your responsibility to follow them. Be sensitive to local customs, traditions and practices as your behaviour may be seen as improper, hostile or even illegal.
You must carry your passport with you at all times. If you’re stopped by the police for a registration (visa) spot check, and can’t prove your identity with an internationally-recognisable ID, you may be detained by the police until your identity is established.
Dual citizens (Irish citizens who also hold Belarusian citizenship) can only enter and leave Belarus on a valid Belarusian passport. You can’t use your Irish passport, even if you have an appropriate visa.
Dual Irish-Belarusian citizens should be aware that the Irish Embassy can only provide them with consular assistance in Belarus at the discretion of the Belarusian authorities.
Belarus has severe penalties for drugs-related crimes. The penalties for drug possession range from fines to up to five years’ imprisonment. Large-scale drug-related offences can result in imprisonment for between 7 - 15 years.
You should avoid taking photographs of any government building, military installations, state institutions and uniformed officials.
Homosexuality is legal under Belarusian law. However, Belarus is a conservative society and the gay/lesbian scene is very low profile and few homosexuals openly declare themselves. Caution and discretion are advised at all times.
If you’re unsure of the entry requirements for Belarus, including visa and other immigration information, ask your travel agent or contact the Embassy of Belarus in London. You can also check with them for how long your passport must be valid.
Irish citizens travelling to Belarus require a visa. For details of how to obtain a visa, please contact the Embassy of Belarus in London. If you plan to enter and leave Belarus through Minsk airport and will be staying in Belarus for no more than thirty days, a visa is not required. However, if you will be traveling to Belarus from the Russian Federation or traveling on to the Russian Federation directly from Belarus, you must still obtain a visa.
If only one parent/guardian is travelling with a child to, or from, Belarus, a translated (if not originally written in Belarusian or Russian) and notarised signed letter from the other parent/guardian, giving permission for the child to travel, will be required by the Belarusian authorities. If this letter is notarised in Ireland, an Apostille will be required from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade in Dublin. Please see the section “Authentication of Documents” for more information about Apostilles.
It’s advisable to take a number of photocopies of your passport with you.
If you’re staying more than three days in Belarus, you must register with the local police office (OVIR) in the district where you’re staying. If you’re staying in a hotel, this will be done on your behalf. If you’re not staying in a hotel, this must be organised by your host. There are fines for not registering in time.
Under Belarusian law, you must have medical insurance that covers the period of your stay. If you buy this outside Belarus, you must be able to show the Belarusian authorities that your policy is valid in Belarus for the duration of your visit and that it provides emergency treatment cover of at least US$5,000. Even with this, it can still be difficult to persuade local officials that a policy obtained abroad meets these criteria.
Foreign visitors must also pay a mandatory state insurance of 0.50 US Dollars per day, at the port of entry.
If you arrive at a port of entry without insurance documentation, you’ll have to buy medical insurance from a State vendor at a cost of approximately 1 USD per day of your stay. This insurance is designed only to compensate local medical institutions for the costs of treating visitors. It doesn’t provide protection for you and shouldn’t be considered as an alternative to comprehensive travel insurance. Some Belarusian hotels will not let you stay if you do not have State medical insurance.
We can’t pay for emergency medical repatriation, repatriation of remains, or for expenses as a result of a personal emergency while you are abroad. If you buy an appropriate travel insurance policy, these costs will be covered, provided you haven’t broken the terms and conditions.
Buying comprehensive travel insurance can save you and your family a lot of money if something goes wrong. It will also ensure that you get the medical attention you need, when you need it. Hospital bills can quickly run into thousands of euro, and a medical evacuation back to Ireland can cost thousands more.
Not all policies are the same, and the cheapest one might be cheap for a reason. Make sure your policy covers all the activities you plan to do on your trip. Insurance Ireland recommend that you purchase a policy that provides a minimum medical cover of €1 million.
Your policy should cover:
- All medical care abroad, including evacuation by air ambulance, or other emergency procedures, and any other costs associated with an unexpected longer stay.
- Your entire trip, from departure to return. Consider an annual multi-trip policy if you’re making more than one trip in the year.
- 24-hour emergency service and assistance.
- Personal liability cover (in case you’re sued for causing injury or damaging property).
- Lost and stolen possessions.
- Cancellation and curtailment.
- Any extra activities you intend to do that are excluded from standard policies (e.g. water sport activities such as jet skiing or other extreme sports).
Exclusions: You should know most insurance policies will not cover drink or drug-related incidents.
Check with your doctor a minimum f eight weeks in advance of travelling to see if you need any vaccinations for Belarus.
Standards of healthcare are well below that of Ireland and you should bring enough essential personal medications to last for your stay, as you may not be able to get supplies in Belarus.
Avoid certain foodstuffs (primarily local dairy produce, forest mushrooms and fruits of the forest), which can carry high levels of radiation as a result of contamination from the Chernobyl disaster.
Don’t drink village well water as it’s usually heavily contaminated with impurities. In cities, you should first boil, then filter tap water before drinking. We recommend that you buy bottled water, which is widely available in shops.
We advise you to carry a mix of US Dollars and Euros when you’re travelling to Belarus and make sure you have enough money for the duration of your stay. The number of ATMs is steadily increasing in major cities. Credit cards are not widely used but some large stores and restaurants will take them and you can use them to withdraw cash at major hotels and banks.
Only exchange foreign currency at Government-licensed booths, found in or near major stores, hotels, banks and all shopping centres. Non-compliance can result in fines and/or arrest.
Please note that if you require urgent assistance while the Embassy is closed, contact the Embassy Duty Officer on +370 6551 5235. Please note this number is monitored outside of office hours only.
Embassy of Ireland
Gedimino pr. 1,
Tel: +370 5262 9460
Monday to Friday 10:00 and 12:00 and between 14:00 and 16:00
Get travel and medical insurance
Before travelling, the Department strongly recommends that you obtain comprehensive travel insurance which will cover all overseas medical costs, including medical repatriation/evacuation, repatriation of remains and legal costs. You should check any exclusions and, in particular, that your policy covers you for the activities you want to undertake.